General:
Introduction
Learning tips
How to do a Lession

Lessons:
Lesson 1
Lesson 2
Lesson 3
Lesson 4
Revision 1
Lesson 5
Lesson 6
Lesson 7
Lesson 8
Revision 2
Lesson 9
Lesson 10
Lesson 11
Lesson 12
Revision 3

Tools:
Alphabet
Dictionary
Grammar
Culture

Nawat language program

Grammar revision
Personal Pronouns
Plurals
Numbers
Adjectives
Possessives
Negatives
Verbs : general
Verb : nemi
Verb : ciwa
Verb : tekiti
Reflexives
Questions
Time
Verb : kustu
Verb : neki
Verb : qa
Verb : mumactia
Verb : altia (maltia)
Verb : altia (kaltia)
Prepositions
Demonstrative pronouns
Adverbial phrases
Diminutives
Gender
Verb : wiz
Verb : yawi
Verb : neki + verb
Verb : yawi + verb

Personal Pronouns
Information
The personal pronouns are:
Explanation
nahaI
tahayou
yahas/he
tehemetwe
anmehemetyou (plural)
yahemetthey
Examples
naha ninemi I am/live
taha tinemiyou are/live
Note
You can omit the pronouns in Nawat as the verb has the information about who does the action.
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Plurals
Information
To form the plural in Nawat, you repeat the first syllable and add a "h".
Explanation
xuhxucitflowers ("xucit" means "flower")
Examples
mahmasat deer (plural)
qahqawit trees
Note
There are other ways of forming the plural in Nawat, but this form is the most common.
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Numbers
Information
The number goes before the noun.
Explanation
se, ume, yey, nawi, maqil1, 2, 3, 4, 5
ciqasen, cikuma, cikyey, ciknawi, mahtati6, 7, 8, 9, 10
Examples
ume eltiwtwo brothers
se tatanoy a/one grandfather
Note
Usually the noun stays in the singular form.
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Adjectives
Information
The adjective can go before or after the noun.
Explanation
tumakwak nutatanoy my grandfather is fat ("tumawak" (fat) goes before the noun "tatanoy" (grandfather)).
ne qawit tumakthe tree is big ("tumak" (big) goes after the noun "qawit" (tree)).
Examples
picawak muikawmy brother/sister is slim
ne tultik tunalthe sun is yellow
Note
Many adjectives end in "wak" or "tik".
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Possessives
Information
The posessives go at the beginning of the noun.
Explanation
numy
muyour
ihis/her
tiour
anmuyour (plural)
intheir
Examples
itatanoyhis/her grandfather
tinoyaour grandmother
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Negatives
Information
To form negative sentences, you put "tesu" before the verb or adjective.
Explanation
tesu ninemi yek "tesu" + verb (I'm not well)
tesu tumawak"tesu" + verb (is not fat)
Examples
tesu nemi tik Santo DomingoS/he does not live in Santo Domingo
tesu tumawak, yaha picawakS/he is not fat, s/he is slim
Note
Sometimes, "tesu" is shortened to "te".
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Verbs : general
Information
The verbs in Nawat have the following format:
(naha) metni + verb
(taha) metti + verb
(yaha) metti + verb
(tehemet) ti + verb + t
(anhemet) an + verb + t
(yehemet) ti + verb + t
Note
Verbs end in "t" for we, you (plural) and they.
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Verb : nemi
Information
"nemi" means "be/live".
(naha) metninemi
(taha) mettinemi
(yaha) mettinemi
(tehemet) tinemit
(anhemet) annemit
(yehemet) tinemit
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Verb : ciwa
Information
"ciwa" means "do".
(naha) metnikciwa
(taha) mettikciwa
(yaha) mettikiciwa
(tehemet) tikciwat
(anhemet) ankciwat
(yehemet) tikciwat
Note
The the verb does not exist in Nawat, the verb "ciwa" (do) is prefixed before the infinitive of the verb in Spanish. For example, "ciwa conectar" for "to connect" ("conectar" is "to connect" in Spanish).
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Verb : tekiti
Information
"tekiti" means "work".
(naha) metnitekiti
(taha) mettitekiti
(yaha) mettitekiti
(tehemet) titekitit
(anhemet) antekitit
(yehemet) titekitit
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Reflexives
Information
The reflexives go at the beginning of the verb.
Explanation
mugeneral reflexive
necme
mezyou
khim/her
tecour
a + prefijo sujeto + mezyou (plural)
k + la primera silaba de la raíz + hthem
Examples
neckukuyaI am sore ("kukuya" means "pain")
mezkukuyayou are sore
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Questions
Information
There are two ways of forming questions: with question words and an normal phrase said in a questioning tone of voice (like in English).
Explanation
tay?what?
ken?how?
kan?where?
tay ika?why?
tumawak mutatanoy?is your grandfather fat? (literally: is fat your grandfather?)
Examples
ken tinemi?how are you?
kan tinemi? where do you live?
picawak munoya? is your grandmother slim? (Literally: is slim your grandmother?)
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Time
Information
References to time have no fixed place in a sentence (they can go at the beginning or end).
Explanation
tik ne tunalku tutunikat the beginning: in summer it's hot
niqa peynaat the end: I eat early
Examples
tik ne xupna tanesi maqilin winter the sun rises at 5
tay tikciwa tayuwa?what do you do in the evening?
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Verb : kustu
Information
"kustu" means "to like".
(naha) metnukustu
(taha) metmukustu
(yaha) mettiikustu
(tehemet) tikustut
(anhemet) anmukustut
(yehemet) tiinkustut
Note
Note that the verb "kustu" takes a possessive.
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Verb : neki
Information
"neki" means "to like/want".
(naha) metnikneki
(taha) mettikneki
(yaha) mettikineki
(tehemet) tiknekit
(anhemet) anknekit
(yehemet) tikinekit
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Verb : qa
Information
"qa" means "to eat".
(naha) metniqa
(taha) mettiqa
(yaha) mettiqa
(tehemet) tiqat
(anhemet) anqat
(yehemet) tiqat
Note
"ta" is added when the object is not specified (or it's not known if there is an object).
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Verb : mumactia
Information
"mumactia" means "to study".
(naha) metnimumactia
(taha) mettimumactia
(yaha) mettimumactia
(tehemet) timumactiat
(anhemet) anmumactiat
(yehemet) timumactiat
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Verb : altia (maltia)
Information
"altia" means "to wash". The "m" at the beginning makes it reflexive.
(naha) metnimaltia (I wash myself)
(taha) mettimaltia (you wash yourself)
(yaha) mettimaltia (s/he washes her/himself)
(tehemet) timaltiat (we wash ourselves)
(anhemet) anmaltiat (you (plural) wash yourselves)
(yehemet) timaltiat (they wash themsleves)
Note
The "m" comes from the reflexive prefix "mu", which is shortened before a vowel.
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Verb : altia (kaltia)
Information
"altia" means "to wash". With a "k" at the beginning, it means that someone else is being washed.
(naha) metnikaltia (I wash him/her)
(taha) mettikaltia (you wash him/her)
(yaha) mettikaltia (s/he washes him/her)
(tehemet) tikaltiat (we wash him/her)
(anhemet) ankaltiat (you (plural) wash him/her)
(yehemet) tikaltiat (they wash him/her)
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Prepositions
Information
Usually, the prepositions go before the noun.
Explanation
kaitan ne qawitpreposition + ne + noun (underneath the tree)
inakastanbeside
Examples
nemi tec ne apanit's near the river
nemi ipan ne tyupanit's to the left of the church
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Demonstrative pronouns
Information
The demonstrative pronouns are:
Explanation
inithis
unithat
yaha néthat one over there
Examples
nikneki iniI want this (one)
tikneki yaha néyou want that one (over there)
Note
There are other demonstrative pronouns, but these are the most common.
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Adverbial phrases
Information
Adverbial phrases go after the verb.
Explanation
ka nikan
ka néover there
Examples
nemi ka nikanit's over here
nemi ka néit's over there
Note
Note the accent on the word "né" to distinguish it from the word "ne" (the article).
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Diminutives
Information
The word "cin" is added at the end of a word to make it diminitive.
Explanation
tututcinnoun + "cin" (little bird)
mistuncinkitten
Examples
kalancin mututucin!your little bird is lovely!
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Gender
Information
If you wist to specifiy that something is female, you can use the word "siwat" before the verb.
Explanation
siwatmistunsiwat + noun (female cat)
siwatpelufemale dog
Examples
tumawak musiwatmistun!your female cat is fat!
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Verb : wiz
Information
"wis" means "to come".
(naha) metniwiz
(taha) mettiwiz
(yaha) mettiwiz
(tehemet) tiwizet
(anhemet) anwizet
(yehemet) tiwizet
Note
Note that the verb "wiz" is a little irregular.
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Verb : yawi
Information
"yawi" means "to go".
(naha) metniyaw
(taha) mettiyaw
(yaha) mettiyawi
(tehemet) tiyawit
(anhemet) anyawit
(yehemet) tiyawit
Note
Note that the verb "yawi" is a little irregular". Also, there are shortened forms. For example, sometimes "niyaw" becomes "niw" in conversation.
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Verb : neki + verb
Information
"neki" + "verb" means "to want to do something". Let's look at an example with "qa" (to eat) (in other words, to want to eat).
(naha) metnikneki niqa
(taha) mettikneki tiqa
(yaha) mettineki qa
(tehemet) tiknekit tiqat
(anhemet) ankineki anqat
(yehemet) tinekit qat
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Verb : yawi + verb
Information
"yawi" + "verb" means "to be going to do something". Let's look at an example with "qa" (to eat) (in other words, to be going to eat)
(naha) metniyaw niqa
(taha) mettiyaw tiqa
(yaha) mettiyawi qa
(tehemet) tiyawit tiqat
(anhemet) anyawit anqat
(yehemet) tiyawit qat
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